Experiential Learning in Post-Secondary Institutions

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By Ann Singh

Many industry professionals have found that there is a growing gap between the skills desired by employers and those obtained by students through colleges and universities (National Post, 2016; OECD, 2017; Rushowy, 2017). This suggests that greater effort is required by post-secondary institutions to equip students with the skills needed to succeed in an increasingly demanding labour market. This issue goes back to the fundamental question of what do we need to teach and how do we teach it? Students require the skills demanded by industries, but they also require the theoretical foundations of their profession and the ability to think conceptually and critically.

Industries, governments, and educators have supported integration of various forms of experiential learning in the classroom (COU, 2014). Brock University was among the first Ontario post-secondary institutions to include an explicit mandate on experiential education (Ministry of Advanced Skills Development, 2017). Educators at Brock are encouraged to provide opportunities for students to apply their learning to real life experiences (S. Howe, personal communication, October 2, 2017). Understanding how we can better integrate experiential learning in the classroom is important because these forms of learning help students develop a range of transferrable skills such as problem solving, communication, and leadership (Baldwin & Rosier, 2016; Ivey-Dewey, 2008; COU, 2014). More importantly, experiential learning helps to equip students with the skills needed to succeed in a professional environment (COU, 2014; OECD, 2017; Roland, 2017).

In this blog I explore the concept of experiential learning, including key benefits and limitations. I will also use Brock University as a case study for identifying general principles that should be considered when integrating experiential learning into the classroom.

What is Experiential Learning?

Experiential learning is a purposeful process of engaged and active learning whereby students construct knowledge, skills, and values from direct experiences involving real-world contexts (Baldwin & Rosier, 2016; Ives-Dewey, 2008). Students apply their learning using hands-on, task-oriented activities, and then relate these experiences to their previous knowledge to generate new knowledge, skills and values (Baldwin & Rosier, 2016; Dewey, 1938; Ives-Dewey, 2008; Jose, Patrick, & Moseley, 2017; Kolb, 1984). Experiential learning can occur both inside the classroom (e.g., through simulations, case-based learning in small groups, and guest-speakers) and outside of the classroom (e.g., through internships, practicums, and fieldtrips) (Baldwin & Rosier, 2016; Jose et al., 2017; Slade, et al., 2015).

Although the origins of experiential learning can be traced back to John Dewey (1938), who believed that students thrive in an environment where they can experience and interact with the curriculum, David Kolb (1984) significantly contributed to this discourse as a teaching approach. Kolb (1984) described four key elements to this student-centred approach. It is important that these steps are an iterative process that students continually experience as part of their learning.

 

Benefits of Experiential Learning

There are several benefits to experiential learning. Educators suggest that experiential learning helps to increase students’ readiness for the workplace (OECD, 2017; S. Howe personal communication, October 2, 2017). Employers also support the notion as it helps in acquiring and developing transferrable skills that they find attractive, such as problem solving, communication, and leadership (Baldwin & Rosier, 2016; Chiose, 2015; COU, 2014; Ivey-Dewey, 2008). Students also develop greater self-esteem and confidence in their abilities because they are able to apply their knowledge to practical situations (Gilbert, Banks, Houser, Rhodes and Lees, 2014).

Experiential learning also helps students to comprehend concepts better and critically engage in their learning (Roland, 2017; Wright, 2000). Experiential learning requires that students actively take control over their learning, and shifts the focus from being passive recipients of knowledge. By doing so, students are encouraged to make connections to course material in ways that cannot be achieved through conventional teaching methods (Wright, 2000). Students reflect on their learning and translate their understanding of concepts into practical knowledge.

Limitations of Experiential Learning

There are also limitations to experiential learning. Educators must invest substantial amounts of time in developing and integrating experiential learning activities into courses both inside and outside of the classroom. This can include identifying appropriate case studies for students, making connections with industries, and a willingness to actively engage students (Wright, 2000). Educators also need to be knowledgeable of experiential learning as a teaching approach, which is sometimes not the case (S. Howe personal communication, October 2, 2017).

Another limitation relates to developing adequate methods of student assessments. Traditional forms of assessment, such as essays and exams, may not accurately reveal the learning experienced by students (Slade et al., 2007). Experiential learning requires innovative methods of assessments that educators may be unfamiliar with. It may be challenging to convince educators to integrate new methods of assessments into their courses (S. Howe, personal communication, October 2, 2017).

Baldwin and Rosier (2017) also argued that experiential learning is not a universally accepted teaching approach. Rather, it is used to support traditional modes of teaching. The authors suggest that a focus on experiential learning could devalue student learning because the focus of teaching is on generating knowledge specific to the workforce.

Principles for Integrating Experiential Learning

Baldwin and Rosier (2017) identify several strategies for integrating experiential learning into the classroom. They argue that for experiential learning to be successful, educators need to have a clear and shared purpose regarding the experiential activity; activities must be student-centred; evaluation needs to be an essential component; students need to be exposed to real world contexts; and students should be provided opportunities for reflection.

These principles are echoed in Brock University’s experiential education initiative (Brock University, 2017). Although the university’s mandate was formalized in 2013, service learning opportunities have always been a core focus of the institution in helping students to translate their classroom knowledge to employability. The formal shift from service learning to experiential education came from alignment with their strategic mandate in 2013 (Brock University, 2017; S. Howe, personal communication, October 2, 2017). This initiative started with engagement sessions with the various stakeholders to establish a common definition of experiential learning (Brock University, 2017). These sessions also allowed for discussion beyond definitions where key themes could emerge. For example, what qualifies as experiential learning? The sessions allowed for alignment from stakeholders that the activity must be a significant learning experience for the student and there must be a reflective component (S. Howe, personal communication, October 2, 2017). These components are essential to successful integration of experiential learning.

References

Baldwin, C., & Rosier, J. (2016). Growing future planners: A framework for integrating experiential learning into tertiary planning programs. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 37(1), 43-55.

Brock University. (2017). Building Brock University’s experiential education definitions.
Retrieved from https://brocku.ca/teaching-learning/experiential-education/

Chan, C. K. Y. (2012). Exploring an experiential learning project through Kolb’s learning theory using a qualitative research method. European Journal of Engineering Education, 37(4), 405-415.

Chiose, S. (2015). Ontario universities defend focus on research in wake of report. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/ontario-universities-defend-focus-on-research-in-wake-of-report/article27705064/?arc404=true

Council of Ontario Universities [COU]. (2014). Bringing life to learning at Ontario Universities. Retrieved from http://cou.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/COU-Experiential-Learning-Report-2014.pdf

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: Collier Books.

Gilbert, B. L., Banks, J., Houser, J. H. W., Rhodes, S. J. Lees, N. D. (2014). Student development in an experiential learning program. Journal of College Student Development, 55(7), 707-713.

Ives-Dewey, D. (2008). Teaching experiential learning in geography: Lessons from planning. Journal of Geography, 107, 167-174.

Jose, S., Patrick, P.G., Moseley, C. (2017). Experiential learning theory: The importance of outdoor classrooms in environmental education. International Journal of Science Education Part B, 7(3), 269-284.

Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]. (2017). Education at a glance 2017: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en

Ministry of Advanced Skills Development. (2017). 2014-17 Strategic Mandate Agreement: Brock University. Retrieved from https://www.ontario.ca/page/2014-17-strategic-mandate-agreement-brock-university

National Post. (2016, June 26). Ontario considers mandatory work experience programs for all students. National Post. Retrieved from http://nationalpost.com/news/canada/ontario-considers-mandatory-work-experience-programs-for-all-students

Roland, K. (2017). Experiential learning: Learning through reflective practice. International Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 8(1), 2982-2989.

Rushowy, K. (2017, Sept 12). Popular post-secondary degrees aren’t where the jobs are, says OECD. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2017/09/12/popular-post-secondary-degrees-arent-where-the-jobs-are-says-oecd.html

Slade, C., Harwood, A., Baldwin, C., & Rosier, J. (2015). Baseline survey of current experiential learning practice in Australian and New Zealand planning schools. Australian Planner, 52(2), 103-113.

Wright, M.C. (2000). Getting more out of less: The benefits of short-term experiential learning in undergraduate sociology courses. American Sociological Association, 28(2), 116-126.

 

 

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If It Ain’t Broke, Why Fix It? Why Some Ontario Colleges Transition into Universities

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By Monica Wice, Brock University

Ontario colleges have been and remain a vital component within the provinces higher education system (OntarioColleges.ca, n.d.,a). The 24 schools are viewed as a place to gain essential work skills, so much so that many university graduates attend college after graduating (Abraham, 2015). Additionally, a Statistics Canada 2009 report (as cited by Abraham, 2015) predicts that college enrollment will rise by 30%, or 150,000 students by 2025, proving their need.

So, I admit I was appalled when I heard that two of Ontario’s colleges were transitioning into universities. Having graduated from several colleges and universities over my lifetime, I have developed some definite opinions about the roles of each type of institution, what they have to offer, and who they serve. I also had my suspicions that money was at the centre of their reasoning for becoming universities and wanted to dig deeper to find out the “truth”.  I will admit when I am wrong and this is one of those times. What I discovered was eye opening and should be concerning to all Ontarionians.

A Little Background

In 1965, the Ontario government created community colleges in response to the need for technical training not offered at university and beyond the level existing in the secondary school system. In 2000 Ontario colleges were allowed to also offer applied baccalaureate degree programs under the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act (PEQAB, 2009, para 2). The four-year degree programs were deemed a success and recommendations for expansion of the degree programs were made in 2004 (Colleges Ontario, n.d.). At this point, colleges were successfully offering both diplomas and applied bachelor degrees to their communities, however in 2012, colleges like Sheridan and Yukon applied to become polytechnic universities (Brown, 2012), leaving me wondering what could possibly be their reason for wanting this change.

The College Argument for Transition

I use Sheridan as a reference because I believe they may be the first of many colleges to make this transition. Back in 2012, when Sheridan college started the transition process, then president Jeff Zabudsky claimed the sole reason for the college wanting to become a university was to give its degree students an opportunity to further their education, saying, “I want every graduate to be able to carry on to grad school if they choose, but Ontario graduate schools refuse to recognize applied degrees” (as cited in Brown, 2012, p. 1).

But simply changing the name of the institution from a college to a university will not grant students access to graduate programs that predominantly look for research experience, something Sheridan adamantly says they will not focus on (Sheridan Journey, n.d.). Their refusal to comply with the research requirement, left me asking who else might benefit from this transition?

Who Benefits? The College

The fact remains that university tuition is higher than college tuition, which results in more revenue for the institution. A 2009 report from the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO) noted that there have been significant changes in revenue sources, with a considerable shift toward tuition (Snowdon & Associates, 2009). “The amount of revenue available to institutions is a key determinant of their ability to carry out their education and research functions effectively” (p. 10). The HEQCO report further acknowledged that college programs have significantly lower tuition costs than other postsecondary options (p. 67).

According to OntarioColleges.ca (n.d.,b), the average cost of tuition for one academic year in an Ontario college diploma program is $2,400 versus $6,100 per year for a bachelor’s degree program. As an example, the total tuition costs for the 4-year Bachelor of Early Childhood Education Leadership program offered at Sheridan College is $11,664 (Sheridan College, 2017), whereas a 4-year Bachelor of Early Childhood Education offered at Brock University totals $34,015 (Brock University, 2017). So, there you have it; universities charge more, therefore get more revenue from student tuition fees. Colleges who transition must be doing it for purely monetary reasons. Right? Not so fast.

Another Possibility

Digging deeper, I discovered that the working environment for college professors is nothing like that of their contemporaries at universities. Ontario colleges were originally created with the single purpose of educating and training workers to support economic development and were never intended to be academic institutions like universities. Colleges are organized and operated as businesses, with departmental managers overseeing their workers (instructors). As Hogan and Trotter (2013) note, “the creation of colleges and institutes was an explicit attempt by provincial governments to produce a separate structure of higher education not intended to share the same historical rights and privileges as universities” (p. 73).

What this means

According to a 2013 Report on Education in Ontario Colleges (MacKay, 2013), three important problems about the teaching environment were noted. First, college professors have no say in course design, content, delivery method, or evaluation methods (p. 4). Second, faculty are educational technicians only, completely ruled by management. “It does not matter if the professor teaching a course has a Ph.D. and 20 years of experience in her field, while her manager has absolutely no relevant expertise; the manager can dictate academic terms to the faculty member” (p. 58). And finally, and most disturbing to me, is that professors have no legal ownership to their intellectual property, not their curriculum, research, or publications. Without academic freedom, “there is a profound disincentive for intellectual workers to innovate, create, and develop new knowledge. In the CAATs today, all intellectual property developed by faculty is seen as the legal property of the college that employs them” (p. 59).

This may have worked within colleges of the past that employed professional experts as instructors, but today’s colleges are filled with academics with doctoral degrees who are accustomed to independent thought and the “publish or perish” mentality. Professors who would like to move on to teach within the university environment will have to rely on those publications and their research as part of their curriculum vitae. Furthermore, the growing tendency of colleges to favour part time and contract employees has led to strikes and a growing concern that colleges are at risk of survival (Rushowy, 2017).

Why Should We Care

Should other colleges go down the same path as Sheridan and Yukon, which I suspect they will, then underrepresented and marginalized populations will be left behind. The community college has been an educational alternative for those students who are not bound for university, those looking for a more vocational trade, closer to home, at a lower cost (Berger, Motte, & Parkin, 2009, p. 17). This new trend of colleges becoming universities, in my opinion, threatens educational opportunities for all the students they are entrusted to serve.

References

Abraham, C. (2015, November 30). Why colleges are increasingly being seen as the smart choice. Maclean’s. Retrieved from http://www.macleans.ca/education/college/why-colleges-are-increasingly-being-seen-as-the-smart-choice/

Berger, J., Motte, A., & Parkin, A. (2009). The price of knowledge: Access and student finance in Canada. (4th ed.). Montreal, QC: Canadian Millennium Scholarship Foundation.

Brock University (2017). Undergraduate tuition and fees, 2016 academic year. Retrieved from https://brocku.ca/safa/tuition-and-fees/overview/undergraduate/ug-2016/#2016-ug-arts-science

Brown, L. (2012, February 8). Sheridan wants to become a university. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2012/02/08/sheridan_wants_to_become_a_university.html

Colleges Ontario. (n.d.). Expand degree programs at colleges. Retrieved September 5, 2017 from http://www.collegesontario.org/news/fact-sheets/Degrees-2014.pdf

Hogan, B. E., & Trotter, L. D. (2013). Academic freedom in Canadian higher education: Universities, colleges, and institutes were not created equal. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 43(2), 68-84.

MacKay, K. (2014). Report on education in Ontario colleges. OPSEU. Retrieved from https://ocufa.on.ca/assets/2014-04_CAAT-A-Report_Education_FULL.pdf

OntarioColleges.ca (n.d.,a). Find a program. Retrieved October 1, 2017 from http://www.ontariocolleges.ca/FindProgram

OntarioColleges.ca (n.d.,b). Why choose college? Retrieved October 1, 2017 from http://www.ontariocolleges.ca/colleges/why-college

PEQAB Postsecondary Education Quality Assessment Board (2009). Quality of Ontario College Degrees. Retrieved September 11, 2017 from http://peqab.ca/QualityONCollegeDegrees.html

Rushowy, K. (2017, October 6). Ontario colleges and faculty to resume contract talks. The Star.com. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2017/10/06/ontario-colleges-and-faculty-to-resume-contract-talks.html

Sheridan College (2017). Tuition fees. Retrieved September 13, 2017 from https://www.sheridancollege.ca/admissions/fees-and-finances/academic-fees/2017-2018-academic-fees/tuition-fees.aspx

Sheridan Journey (n.d.). What is a teaching university? Retrieved September 10, 2017 from http://journey.sheridancollege.ca/?p=qa#

Snowdon & Associates (2009). Revisiting Ontario college and university revenue data. Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/Revenue%20Data%20Eng.pdf

 

 

The Cost of Tuition Free Higher Education

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Christopher Miniaci, Brock University 

The cost of higher education is a substantial entry barrier for many young people. “The more than one trillion dollar student loan debt is frightening and many are questioning the value of higher education as a result” (Cubberbly, 2015, p. 21). Due to this, we have seen a push in the United States of America for tuition-free higher education. Goldrick and Rab (2016) outline former president Barack Obama’s proposal for free tuition for community colleges, as well as democratic candidate Bernie Sanders plan for tuition free higher education. Schuhrke (2016) notes that Senator Sander’s recent presidential campaign helped cement the topic of free tuition into the mainstream national dialogue. For this piece, I intend to focus primarily on the United States of America.

What is the issue?

With the push for reduced tuition, or tuition free higher education, student enrolment is expected to increase (Jongbloed & Vossensteyn 2016). Patton (2016) reminds us that the costs of educating students are high for institutions, thus funding for the institutions would also be a challenge as we look at tuition free higher education.

Why does it need to be addressed?

Morris (2015) reminds us that in today’s world a high school degree is often not enough. As many states begin to roll out their own form of tuition-free or reduced tuition higher education (Abdul-Alim, 2017), it is expected that student enrollment will increase (McHardie, 2016). The educational institutions must be prepared for the increased enrolment to ensure the quality of education students receive does not suffer. We seem to be focused on eliminating or reducing tuition costs for students; however, unless the educational institutions receive funding in other ways, the reduced tuition will come at a cost. Will the quality of education still be the same? Will there be adequate student services and resources available to support student learning?

Existing Debates

There are two main sides to the debate surrounding tuition free higher education. The first suggests that higher education is a fundamental human right that benefits society as a whole. “Higher education is a welfare good on a par with basic schooling and health care…To lead autonomous lives adult citizens need ongoing education support” (Martin, 2016, p. 3). Martin suggests that placing a large cost on higher education discourages many from attending.

The opposing argument suggests that the people receiving the education benefit the most therefore they should share the costs. “This argument is based on the fact that adults completing higher education are more likely to be employed and earn more than adults without higher education” (Johnstone, 2006, p. 581).  The theory is that if those who can afford higher education pay their fair share, then governments and higher education institutions will be able to support those who cannot afford to pay for it themselves (Jongbloed & Vossensteyn 2016).

Possible Solutions

One solution is already taking place in several states. Schuhrke (2016) discusses Illinois’ “ambitious new campaign that’s trying to make change happen on the state level, regardless of who’s in power in Washington” (p. 9). The campaign aims to make public universities in Illinois free to residents. (Abdul-Alim, 2017) outlines New York’s new Excelsior Scholarship program which “makes attendance at New York state’s public universities — CUNY and SUNY institutions — tuition-free for families that make $125,000 a year or less” (p. 8). These in state solutions are a first step, however they rely on each individual state to make these changes, and only five (Arkansas, Minnesota, Oregon, Rhode Island and Tennessee) currently have free college programs (Abdul-Alim, 2017).

Another possible solution comes from the federal level. Recent Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders unveiled his College-for-All plan in which public colleges and universities nation wide would become tuition free. This would be paid for by imposing a tax on Wall Street speculators for each bond, stock, or derivative they sell. While this plan has many powerful people on Wall Street very upset, income inequality is at an all time high (Cobb & Stevens 2017).

While I believe that a creative plan like Senator Sander’s can provide the funding needed for higher education institutions while reducing the cost barrier for students, I question how this plan is feasible without Democratic control of the Senate and Whitehouse.

The student loan debt in the USA is now $1.4 trillion with the average borrower graduating from their Bachelor degrees with a debt of $30,100 (DiGangi, 2017). Financial stress and the inability to balance multiple life demands is a major issue for students (Britt et al., 2017). If we want the youth to contribute to the economy and to society, to be able to afford houses, and to start families, I argue that we must reevaluate the way higher education is provided. Higher education must be looked at on par with K-12 learning in order to reduce the cost barrier for students and provide the institutions the funding needed to make up for the reduced tuition.

References

Abdul-Alim, J. (2017). Experts: NY free-college model positive, not perfect. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 7, 8.

Britt, S., Ammerman, D., Barrett, S., & Jones, S. (2017). Student loans, financial stress, and college student retention. Journal Of Student Financial Aid47(1), 25-37.

Cobb, J. A, & Stevens, F. G. (2017). These unequal states: Corporate organization and income inequality in the Unites States. Administrative Science Quarterly, 62(2), 304-340.

Cubberley, F. (2015). The reality of free community college tuition. Journal of College Admission, 227, 21-23.

DiGangi, C. (2017, April 18). The average student loan debt in every state. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/personalfinance/2017/04/28/average-student-loan-debt-every-state/100893668/

Goldrick-Rab, S., & Kelly, A. P. (2016). Should community college be free? Education Next16(1), 54-60.

Johnstone, D. B. (2006). Cost-sharing and the cost-effectiveness of grants and loan subsidies to higher education. In Cost-sharing and accessibility in higher education: A fairer deal? (pp. 51-77). Netherlands: Springer.

Jongbloed, B., & Vossensteyn, H. (2016). University funding and student funding: international comparisons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 4, 576.

Martin, C. (2016). Should students have to borrow? Impact, 23, 1-37.

McHardie, D. (2016). New Brunswick offers free tuition to low income students. CBC News.

Morris, C. (2015). Pay it forward: The national debate to make Community College free continues as more States develop a tuition-free plan for students. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 23, 12-13.

Patton, C. (2016). Is free tuition working? Journal of College Admission232, 30-33.

Schuhrke, J. (2016). We could still win free college. In These Times, 40(12), 8-9.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The importance of teaching and research at the university level

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By Matt Hickling, Brock University 

Universities are places where people can ask questions and seek answers, but two existential questions remain on the topic of universities: “why are they here” and “what purpose do they serve”?  This leads naturally to a number of other questions that will be central to the analysis of this paper: do universities exist as places to learn or crucibles within which students should be trained for specific jobs?  To whom do universities owe their ultimate allegiance, the students who populate them, the professors who are employed by them, or the society who funds them?  Most importantly, how should universities identify, prioritize, and balance the seemingly competing initiatives of teaching and research in order to provide an integral service to everyone involved?

Universities are “elite, complex institutions with multiple academic and societal roles” (Altbach, 2011, p. 11) and there are three categories of stakeholders who will be considered as part of this analysis.  First, although “funding to institutions is equally as important as funding to students” (O’Rourke, 2013, p.70), without students, there would be no university.  Consequently, students’ experience with teaching and research should be universities’ primary concern.  Second, professors and instructors are employees of the university, and they provide a service to the school based on both their teaching and research initiatives.  Finally, society funds universities and keeps them as a viable business venture; it also holds them in reverence as institutions that create and nurture the next generation of engaged citizens.  A number of competing and sometimes contradictory interests are involved here and through this analysis, I will identify a number of opportunities and challenges that pertain to this fundamental issue, both now and into the future.

University-situated research is a relatively new phenomenon, as for the first eight hundred years of its history, the university’s purpose was to teach and prepare students for the professions (Altbach, 2011).  Universities started to integrate research into their curriculum in the early eighteenth century in order to assist in national development and to help nation states exert international power and influence (Altbach, 2011).

Over the past two hundred years or so, the roles of students at university have changed substantially.  Initially, they required universities and professors to provide knowledge and experience, whereas nowadays, many of them have taken control of their own education and consider themselves to be consumers who deserve some kind of return on their financial, social and time-based investment (Cote & Allahar, 2007).

Some students argue that more emphasis on teaching will result in greater student learning (Chapnik, 2012) while others feel that if universities were to focus on teaching, they would create “create cosier classes, cut salary costs and boost student satisfaction” (Brown, 2012, p. 1).  Countering this argument is one from university administration that suggests that “universities teach in a scholarly environment that is informed, stimulated and enriched by research” (Chapnick, 2012, p. 1).  Sometimes it is true that “research enhances teaching” (Prince, Felder & Brent, 2007, p. 283) whereas sometimes it is the case that research is simply completed by professors to satisfy their own interests and earn funding for the university.

Most universities require some kind of scholarly activity on the part of their tenure-track and tenured professors, in the form of research-based publication.  At play in this context is a key semantic difference: the process of “doing” research versus the pursuit of scholarly exploration “for” research.  Professors who conduct or “do” research are often engaged in the process of data collection, interpretation of results through synthesis and evaluation in order to produce something that it is of use to colleagues, libraries, students or the society at large.  Those who pursue their activity “for” research are engaged in some form of professional development, in order to become better at the craft of teaching.

Finally, at the societal level, we must consider whether and to what extent teaching and research provides an effective return on investment.  How and to what extent does society reap the benefits of a robust centre of research or an active and committed centre of teaching excellence to ensure the financial, socio-cultural and humanitarian strength of the next generation?  These questions are difficult to answer because among other things there is no clear and consistent mandate provided by either the universities or their funders with regards to the combination of teaching, research and service (Rhoten & Calhoun, 2011).  Still they remain essential questions to consider, mindful of the changing nature of the universities and the respective societies that they serve.

References

Altbach, P. (2011).  The past, present and future of the research university. In P. Altbach & J. Salmi (Eds.). The road to excellence: The making of world-class research universities (pp. 11-32). Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Brown, L. (2012, February 7). Teaching-only universities would cut education costs, author says. The Star Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/life/parent/2012/02/07/teachingonly_universities_would_cut_education_costs_author_says.html

Chapnick, A. (2012, October 10) The teaching only stream: Are we headed up a creek without a paddle? University Affairs Retrieved from http://www.universityaffairs.ca/features/feature-article/the-teaching-only-stream/

Cote, J. E., & Allahar, A. L. (2007). Ivory tower blues: A university system in crisis. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

O’Rourke, C. (2013).  Every student counts: Current trends in post-secondary student retention. In M. Kompf & P. M. Denicolo (Eds.), Critical issues in higher education (pp. 67-81). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Prince, M. J., Felder, R. M., & Brent, R. (2007).  Does faculty research improve undergraduate teaching? An analysis of existing and potential synergies. Journal of Engineering Education, 96(4), 283-294.

Rhoten, D. & Calhoun, C. (Eds.), (2013).  Knowledge matters: The public mission of the research university.  New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Towards Increased Funding for Student Supports in Post-Secondary Institutions

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By Mark Raghu, Brock University

Last year, the Ontario government announced free post-secondary tuition for low-income families making less than $50,000.00 annually (Rushowy, 2016). So far in this 2017-18 academic year, one-third of college and university applicants have received free-tuition grants, with overall applications for student financial assistance up 10% from last year (Rushowy, 2017).

Positive steps are being taken to provide those with the lowest income access to a post-secondary education. Statistically, particularly in Ontario’s most diverse city, Toronto, low-income families are made up of the most marginalized groups (Parekh, et.al, 2017, p. 252). The term marginalized may apply to many separate or intersecting groups such as visible minorities, first-generation, indigenous, low-income, disabled, English-as-a-second-language and more. Much of my focus moving forward will be on racialized, low-income youth, however, the assertions that follow could be applied to all groups listed. Post-secondary institutions dedicate vast amounts of resources on recruitment of potential students. Many post-secondary institutions market themselves as equitable, diverse and progressive. While they market themselves to all, colleges and universities continue to lack in their support of marginalized students.

Many low-income, marginalized youth, upon entering post-secondary studies are entering a world that is very unfamiliar to them and to which they have had limited exposure. Youth from low-income families often have parents who did not complete their post-secondary education in Canada or go to a post-secondary institution at all (Parekh, et. al, 251).  Transitioning into post-secondary education is in general a daunting task and for many students “their entry to university may coincide with a period of instability in their lives, which can disrupt the capacity of students to persist with their studies” (O’Keeffe, 2013, p. 606). While all students will have challenges they need to overcome to succeed in post-secondary institutions, low-income, marginalized youth often lack the cultural capital of many of their peers to overcome such challenges. Cultural Capital is a concept attributed to Bourdieu (Kalmijn  & Kraaykamp, 1996, p. 23), and refers to the social capital one possesses because of their socio-economic status. In relation to education, it is said that those from lower-incomes and marginalized grouped do not possess the same resources to overcome the challenges of post-secondary education as students from more privileged backgrounds (Kalmijn  & Kraaykamp, 1996, p. 24).

Marginalized youth may have feelings of isolation, inadequacy and lacking the required tools to compete post-secondary studies. These feelings of inadequacy are often conceived prior to entering post-secondary; “(Lane & Taber, 2012, p. 120).  Within the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), there has been much research and literature about the lack of resources and the streaming that low-income, marginalized youth are subjected to (Parekh, et. al, 2011). This year, the TDSB Enhancing Equity Task Force released a draft report, which detailed recommendations on how to enhance equity within the board. The report stated that “all students need to feel that they belong, are heard and are cared for through the creation of more inclusive, representative and relational cultures in school” (TDSB, 2017, p.31). Recommendations of how to achieve this included creating systems to “foster student self-advocacy and empowerment, including student and peer leadership” as well as making sure “ that students have dedicated caring adults in school to mentor and advocate with and for them” (TDSB, 2017, p. 31). The TDSB was able to conduct research and give recommendations because as of 2004, the school board “mandated the collection of identity based data” (TDSB, 2017, p. 11). If post-secondary institutions are to better support low-income, marginalized youth, they too must be able to gather and analyze data; unfortunately, currently much of this data is not available. A recent CBC news investigation concluded that most Canadian universities do not collect race-based data, even though many, including the Ontario government are in support of such collection as a way of combatting inequality (McDonald & Ward, 2017).

Universities must prioritize funding towards student supports, particularly supports that reach out to students who feel isolated, lost, and/or unsupported by their school. Mentorship programs are one way that universities can better support their most vulnerable students. Some universities already having thriving programs; one such program is Ryerson University’s Tri-Mentoring program (http://www.ryerson.ca/studentlife/trimentoring/). Recent research has shown that mentorship can help students combat many of the factors that could lead them to dropout, including fostering a sense of belonging, a growth mindset and utility goals and values (Preston, 2017).

With post-secondary education more accessible in Ontario, universities must invest in supporting its increasingly diverse student population. Dropout rates have a financial and social effect on not only the institution, but also society and “it is the higher education institution, which must seek to create a welcoming environment, where care, warmth and acceptance are promoted, in order to achieve improved student retention” (O’Keeffe, 2013, p. 612).

References

Kalmijn, M., & Kraaykamp, G. (1996). Race, cultural capital, and schooling: An analysis of trends in the United States. Sociology of Education, 69 (3), 22-34.

Lane, L., & Taber, N. (2012). Experiences with cultural capital in education: Exploring the educational life stories of first-generation postsecondary students. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education (Online)24(2).

McDonald, J. and Ward, L. (2017, March 21). Why so many Canadian universities know so little about their own racial diversity. CBC News Canada. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/race-canadian-universities-1.4030537

O’Keeffe, P. (2013). A sense of belonging: Improving student retention. College Student Journal47(4), 605-613.

Parekh, G., Killoran, I., & Crawford, C. (2011). The Toronto connection: Poverty, perceived ability, and access to education equity. Canadian Journal of Education34(3), 249.

Preston, J. (2017, June 7). Three things mentors can do to help youth get through college. The Chronicle of Evidence-Based Mentoring. Retrieved from https://chronicle.umbmentoring.org/three-things-mentors-can-help-get-youth-college/

Rushowy, K. (2016, February 25).  Free tuition for college or university promised to students from low-income families. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2016/02/25/free-tuition-for-college-or-university-promised-to-students-from-low-income-families.html

Rushowy, K. (2017, September 11). One-third of Ontario college and university students receive free tuition grants. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2017/09/11/one-third-of-ontario-college-and-university-students-receive-free-tuition.html

Toronto District School Board (2017). Enhancing equity task force draft report. Toronto, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/Community/docs/EETFReport.pdf

 

 

 

Non-Traditional Student Demographics in University

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By Kristen Nilsen, Brock University 

Setting the Scene

First year orientation. Students have just finished high school. Some not looking old enough to be there. Making new friends. Walking to class from their residence buildings. This is a familiar and relatable image for many, but is this the experience all students have? What about those who are entering university with transfer credits, and are therefore not a “new” or “first year” student? Those who are taking part time classes in between their full time working hours, unable to make it to orientation? The adult learner who does not feel they relate to the 18 and 19 year olds amongst them, nor that the 18 and 19 year olds relate to them?

Current Reality

Adult “non-traditional” learners are faced with multiple, often competing, demands from work, education, family, and leisure (Dzubinski, et al., 2012, p. 103). Universities traditionally focus on full time students who have few of the demands non-traditional students tend to have. Non-traditional student success may hinge on the institutions’ ability to be flexible to these students’ particular needs. A Huffington Post article stated that “more college students are ‘non-traditional;’ some combination of part-time attendees, older and working” (Aziz, 2014). In the United States, only about one third of college students are “traditional” full time attendees and “the rise in enrollment of students 25 and older is projected to be nearly double that of younger students through 2020” (Aziz, 2014). In fact, only about a third of college students are 18 to 21 year old full-time attendees and about 40 percent of all college students are older than 25. This group is expected to be nearly double the size of traditional students by 2020 (Aziz, 2014).
In an American study of students who enrolled in a two-year institution with the goal of attaining a bachelor’s degree, only 23 percent succeeded within eight years (Templin & Deane). In a 2015 report by Brock University and Yukon College (Martinello & Stewart), attrition from year one to year four was higher for college transfer students (p. 23), and college transfer students were awarded pass degrees at a higher rate than non-transfer students, who were awarded honours degrees at higher rates (p. 31). Further research needs to look into the causes of these numbers. Numbers and statistics are important, but in order to better support these students, institutions need to understand where they are falling short in supporting students who are mature, part-time, or transfer.

Currently “university bureaucracies are made to deal with typical students” (Rybak, 2009). In an environment that claims to support lifelong learning, institutions do little to understand the needs of the diverse students who attend or wish to attend, resulting in a system that is designed for students coming directly from high school and not for students who fall outside of the “traditional” attributes of a university student. The research could benefit from a consistent understanding of what “non-traditional” student truly means, and identify similarities and differences between the various groups that fall into this category. Is age the only differentiating factor? A student who has just graduated high school could be a part-time student who works full time to support themselves, making the experience different from their full time first year counterpart. Mature students could be starting from first year with no transfer credits and not working during their academic program, but this does not mean they have the same needs as traditional students in the same situation.

Looking Ahead

If students do not feel that there are supports for them they are required to spend more time navigating an unfamiliar system that was not designed for them, rather than putting that energy into their studies. As one part of the non-traditional group, “transfer students see themselves as a distinct population and even though they need many of the same services, they often assume that the workshops and programs are designed for younger students” (Carleton University, 2013, p. 2). This belief is a problem, and is indicative of the feelings mature and part-time students have as well, “with mature students more likely to withdraw from study than their traditional counterparts, models of student attrition and retention are of particular interest when considering their experiences” (van Rhijn, et al., 2016, p. 30). Universities need to accommodate all groups of students and try to meet them where they are at. Empirical research that tries to understand non-traditional students is insufficient in its attempt to understand such a diverse population (Gilardi & Guglielmetti, 2011, p. 34), which means as a step toward addressing non-traditional student needs, universities must work to understand them, involving these students in the conversation, comparing and contrasting the feedback from students to the processes and practices within the institution, and implementing meaningful changes into institutional processes as necessary. The literature indicated that institutions do little to follow up to assess initiatives designed for mature students.

How effective is demographic specific programming if there is never any follow up on the impact to students? Worse, if it is not directly communicated to the target audience institutions may infer that the programming is not necessary due to lack of attendance, instead of recognizing the messages were not targeted to students in an appropriate way. An increase in research on institutions that are successfully accommodating non-traditional student learners would benefit other universities and allow them to see where changes to their own systems can be implemented. Non-traditional students have the ability to succeed, but their needs must be recognized and addressed in order to achieve greater academic success, be appropriately supported, and have an equitable, barrier free, post-secondary experience like their traditional student counterparts.

References

Azziz, R. (2014). A looming challenge in higher education: Changing student. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-ricardo-azziz/a-looming-challenge-higher-education_b_4855108.html.
Carleton University. (2013). Supporting the success of transfer students. Retrieved from: http://www.Oncat.Ca/files_docs/content/pdf/en/oncat_research_reports/2013-04-final-report-support-the-success-of-transfer-students.pdf.
Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K. L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an adult learning graduate program for the early 21st century: A developmental action inquiry study. Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110.
Gilardi, S. & Guglielmetti, C. (2011). University life of non-traditional students: Engagement styles and impact of attrition. The Journal of Higher Education, 82(1), 33-53.
Martinello, F. & Stewart, J. (2015). Transfers from college to one Ontario university: A four-year outcome study. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 41(1), 18-36.
Rybak, J. (2009, April 9). Adult students: How to get back into “the system”. Macleans. Retrieved from: http://www.macleans.ca/education/uniandcollege/getting-back-into-the-system-and-returning-to-education/.
Templin, R. & Deane, K. (2017, October 9). Leadership matters for transfer success. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2017/10/09/college-leaders-can-play-big-role-helping-more-transfer-students-get-graduation.
van Rhijn, T., Lero, D., Bridge, K., Fritz, V. (2016). Unmet needs: challenges to success from the perspectives of mature university students. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 28(1), 29-47.

Higher Education and the Propagation of Sexism in STEM

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By Austin Anderson, Brock University 

Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, and Galileo Galilei essentially form the ‘Mount Rushmore’ of science (Orzel, 2006). Of course, the fact that all four are men is no coincidence; society has historically valued the scientific contributions of men over women. (Worthen, 2017).

Before addressing the current state of women in STEM fields, and more specifically how universities propagate sexism in the scientific community, I believe a historical perspective is of utmost importance. Through a historical lens, the origin of gender bias can be uncovered (Barnett, 2009), explaining that under-representation and under-valuing of women in science has occurred for centuries.

The Renaissance is quite possibly the most transformative time-period in the history of humankind. Barnett (2009) discusses that during this ‘age of evolution’ there was a profound shift towards scientific study, which laid the foundation for modern science. Famous scientists such as Copernicus, Kepler, Leibniz, and da Vinci all lived during this remarkable time-period. However, as the imagination and skills of men increased during this revolutionary time, women were devalued and forgotten by the scientific community (Laven, 2003).

Even today, women must continuously overcome various challenges to become respected members of the scientific community (Gristock, 2016). Bywater, Duran, Vijayaraghavan, Horner-Devine, and Ramirez (2017) elaborate, stating that the various sexist-based obstacles women navigate daily is the major factor in their under-representation in the scientific community. Within the field of academia, male faculty employ fewer female graduate students, women are less likely to receive mentorship, women publish few scientific articles, and women are less frequently cited (Bywater et al., 2017). Academia, or the institution of higher education, is clearly a major component of the identified sexism of women in scientific communities. A progressive shift must occur before our scientific discoveries plateau. As Gristock (2016) mentions, female scientific authorship has declined in since 2009 while female enrolment has dramatically increased. Are there transformative ideas being forgotten because of the sexism propagated by higher-education?

Social role theory, explains that as occupations and other social roles are sex segregated (as science was during The Renaissance), it is human nature to infer that there must be something inherently better about men that predisposes them toward math and science, something women clearly do not possess (Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000). We continuously her various explanations of what those inherent differences might be: genetics, hormonal differences, differences in brain structure, etcetera. However, as Eagly et al. (2000) discuss, these advocates fail to acknowledge the differences in opportunities, social norms, and expectations women currently face. A dramatic shift is needed, a shift towards an inclusive mindset for women in scientific fields. If such a mindset is not adopted, women will continue to be under-represented and under-valued in the scientific community.

In a study conducted by Rincón and George-Jackson (2016) that examined department climate throughout university engineering departments, the impact of social role theory was evident. Female students reported higher rates of gender harassment across university campuses, but this harassment was magnified in STEM fields due to the lack of gender diversity. The culture of STEM has long been perceived as a masculine domain, so the departments function as a means of social exclusion (Rincón & George-Jackson, 2016). Female students will likely encounter unwelcoming spaces, dominated by males, throughout the duration of their undergraduate degree, which could not only hinder their educational development but strengthen the possibility of re-evaluating their pursuit of a STEM career.

Social role theory is not the only contributing factor of the under-representation of women, as the stereotype threat has a profound impact on female experiences in STEM (Beasley & Fischer, 2012). Stereotype activation describes the pressure women face when being judged with a negative stigma, often occurring in situations when men outnumber women (Schuster & Martiny, 2016). Unfortunately, the STEM field is overwhelmingly dominated by men which causes women to underperform and deidentify with STEM (Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008). In research conducted by Holleran, Whitehead, Schmader, and Mehl (2010) the stereotypes surrounding females in university faculties were analysed. In discussions between STEM faculty members, men engaged each other in conversations about research, while men engaged women in conversations about social life. Further, men gained psychological boosts through monopolized conversations by demeaning the research ideas of women and by demotivating their female colleagues’ pursuit of research. Clearly, even in the faculties of universities, men believe women are not of equal intellectual ability.

Ellis, Fosdick, and Rasmussen (2016) discuss the metaphor of the ‘leaky pipeline’ to describe the underrepresentation of women at certain milestones in the STEM pathway. Their research specifically focused on the fact that woman are 1.5 times more likely to discontinue their pursuit of a STEM degree after first-year calculus. Ellis et al. (2016) argue that if women persisted with their studies at the same rate as their male counterparts after first-year calculus, that women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%. This conclusion, while heart-warming, fails to address the systemic sexism throughout higher-education. This systemic sexism is ultimately the major flaw in the pipeline metaphor, which fails to properly target the major causes of the under-representation of women in STEM. Cannady, Greenwald, and Harris (2014) mention that the ‘leaky pipeline’ metaphor has informed policy for decades, but despite the millions of dollars invested in ‘pipeline patches’ women still face challenges in their pursuit of STEM careers. Investing resources in early STEM engagement, renewed math strategies in elementary and secondary school, or early post-secondary interventions do not truly impact the progression of women toward STEM careers. A complete revolution of the post-secondary mindset surrounding women in STEM must occur.

Men of academia must strive to create a welcoming environment for women colleagues, as women colleagues could function as ‘guiding lights’ for younger generations of women. Drury, Siy, and Cheryan (2011) discuss that female role models alleviate the impact of the stereotype threat on perspective female STEM students. Female role models, if we adopt the ‘leaky pipeline’ metaphor, are the certified plumbers; female role models install a perfectly working pipe. The University of Waterloo is a leading advocate for this transition, calling for 33% female enrolment in STEM outreach programs, 30% female faculty by 2020, and 29% female participation in academic and senior leadership. While these numbers may seem relatively small, they represent a drastic increase from current post-secondary numbers. Hopefully, the impact of these interventions causes other universities to follow and perhaps outdo Waterloo.

Post-secondary institutions must address the issue of systemic sexism towards women in STEM before society ceases to progress. Greenfield, Peters, Lane, Rees, and Samuels (2002) state that the under-representation of women in STEM threatens global competitiveness and that under-representation is an issue for society, for organizations, for employers, and for the individual. Progress, at our current rapid rate in the technological age, will only continue if women are afforded both respect and opportunity in the scientific community. This is a call for post-secondary institutions to reflect on their current structure, address the propagation of sexism in their various scientific departments, and strive to bridge the gap between males and females in STEM.

Charles Babbage never develops the concept of the programmable computer without the influential work of Ada Lovelace (Davis, 2015). Edwin Hubble never discovers that the universe is expanding without the mathematics of Henrietta Leavitt (Howell, 2016). Watson and Crick never discover DNA without the contributions of Rosalind Franklin (Worthen, 2017). The most audacious claim, in the entire history of science, is that women are less intelligent and less influential than their male colleagues. Imagine a world where Isaac Newton’s contributions were under-valued or Albert Einstein pursued nursing because of a female-dominated societal structure. Ironically, in our most progressive fields, we are still stuck in the fourteenth century.

References

Barnett, R. (2009). A short history of women in science: From stone walls to invisible walls. In American Enterprise Institute (Ed.), The Science of Women in Science. Washington, DC: Aei Press

Beasley, M. A., Fischer, M. J. (2012). Why they leave: the impact of stereotype threat on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math and engineering majors. Social Psychology of Education, 15(4), 427-448. doi: 10.1007/s11218-012-9185-3

Bywater, K., Duran, K. L., Vijayaraghavan, R., Horner-Devine, C., & Ramirez, K. (2017, March 8). We are never just scientists. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/voices/we-are-never-just-scientists/

Cannady, M. A., Greenwald, E., & Harris, K. N. (2014). Problematizing the STEM pipeline metaphor: Is the STEM pipeline metaphor serving our students and the STEM workforce. Science Education, 98(3), 443-460. doi:10.1002/sce.21108

Davis, N. (2015, April 12). Ada Lovelace and Charles Babbage designed a computer in the 1840s: A cartoonist finishes the project. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/apr/12/thrilling-adventures-ada-lovelacecharles-babbage-sydney-padua

Drury, B. J., Siy, J. O., & Cheryan, S. (2011). When do female role models benefit women? The importance of differentiating recruitment from retention in STEM. Psychological Inquiry, 22, 265-269. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2011.620935

Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A.B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes, & H.N. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp.123-174). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ellis, J., Fosdick, B. K., & Rasmussen, C. (2016). Women 1.5 times more likely to leave STEM pipeline after calculus compare to men: Lack of mathematical confidence a potential culprit. Plos ONE, 11(7), 1-14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157447

Greenfield, S., Peters, J., Lane, N., Rees, T., & Samuels, G. (2002). A report on women in science, engineering, and technology, from the baroness greenfield CBE to the secretary of state for trade and industry. Retrieved from: https://www.katalytik.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/4408-DTI-Greenfield.pdf

Gristock, J. (2016, May 31). Why aren’t there more women in science? The industry structure is sexist. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/31/women-science-industy-structure-sexist-courses-careers

Holleran, S. E., Whitehead, J., Schmader, T., Mehl, M. R. (2010). Talking shop and shooting the breeze: a study of workplace conversation in job disengagement among STEM faculty. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(1), 65-71. doi:10.1177/1948550610379921

Howell, E., (2016, November 11). Henrietta Swan Leavitt: Discovered hot to measure stellar differences. Space.com. Retrieved from https://www.space.com/34708-henrietta-swan-leavitt-biography.html

Laven, M. (2003). Virgins of Venice: Enclosed lives and broken vows in the renaissance convent. New York, NY: Penguin Books

Orzel, C. (2006, May 3). Einstein, Darwin, Newton, and…? Uncertain Principles. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2006/05/03/einstein-darwin-newton-and/

Rincón, B. E., & George-Jackson, C. E. (2016). Examining department climate for women in engineering: The role of STEM interventions. Journal of College Student Development57(6), 742-747. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2016.0072

Schuster, C., & Martiny, S. E. (2016). Not feeling good in STEM: Effects of stereotype activation and anticipated affect on women’s career aspirations. Sex Roles, 76, 40-55. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0665-3

Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychology Review, 115(2), 336-356. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.236

Worthen, M. (2017, June 24). 3 women scientists whose discoveries were credited to men. Biography. Retrieved from https://www.biography.com/news/famous-female-scientists